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Number of posts : 111
Registration date : 2007-01-05

PostSubject: Scuba diving   Thu May 17, 2007 4:07 pm

[color:2c9a=orange:2c9a]Equipment needed~ Finimeter & Consoles

During diving operations it is essential to know how much air you have left at all times.
~Compressed-air cylindersThe seamless compressed air cylinders are made of chromium molybdenum steel, flame-sprayed and stove-enameled with coating, have a metric cylinder thread with TÜV certification.
~Full Face Mask

The fullface mask Panorama Nova Dive is an outstanding mask for diving
~ Underwater communication

The underwater telephone is an important accessory for a professional diving apparatus
~ Mixed Gas Rebreathers

Mixed gas rebreather are closed and semi closed circuit diving apparatus for use in all facets of very shallow water diving.

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~ Oxygen Rebreather

Oxygen rebreather are closed circuit diving apparatus for use in all facets of very shallow water diving.

Scuba diving rules
*Scuba diving is, by nature, a dangerous sport. But, you can have a safe, fun and accident free dive by following a few safety rules.
*The Five Ws
Scuba diving is a complex sport and cannot be fully understood in one lesson. Before taking your first scuba class, you should have a firm comprehension of the five Ws (who, what, where, when, and why) of scuba diving.
*Get a medical examination from your doctor and take a swim test before learning SCUBA diving. You don't have to be an olympic athlete, but you do need to know some basic swimming skills.
*They all require special training. One can easily get lost or trapped and run out of air.
:Never dive by yourself. Find a buddy.

:Listen to and follow the rules set forth by the person in charge of the dive.

:Check your equipment carefully and check how the equipment functions, especially if you are renting the equipment. Make sure everything fits and works properly.Know local weather conditions before you go on a dive. Make sure the water and weather conditions are safe. Water conducts electricity. Stop swimming, boating or any other activities on the water as soon as you see or hear a storm. Getting struck by lightning isn't pleasant and heavy rains can make certain areas dangerous.

:Protect your skin by wearing a waterproof sunscreen with a sun protection factor containing a high rating such as 15.

:Drink plenty of water regularly and often even if you do not feel thirsty. Your body needs water. Know the signs and symptoms of dehydration.

:Know the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion and emergency treatment if you are diving in hot weather.

:Know the signs and symptoms of hypothermia and emergency treatment if you are diving in cold weather.

:Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes against the suns damaging rays. Choose sunglasses that absorb at least 90 percent of UV sunlight.
This is not an all inclusive list. There are many more things you can do to be safe while on a dive. Use your common sense.

:If you have had a bad diving experience because of someone who had no regard for safety rules, lets hear about it.
Know local weather conditions before you go on a dive. Make sure the water and weather conditions are safe. Water conducts electricity. Stop swimming, boating or any other activities on the water as soon as you see or hear a storm. Getting struck by lightning isn't pleasant and heavy rains can make certain areas dangerous.

Protect your skin by wearing a waterproof sunscreen with a sun protection factor containing a high rating such as 15.

Drink plenty of water regularly and often even if you do not feel thirsty. Your body needs water. Know the signs and symptoms of dehydration.

Know the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion and emergency treatment if you are diving in hot weather.

Know the signs and symptoms of hypothermia and emergency treatment if you are diving in cold weather.

Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes against the suns damaging rays. Choose sunglasses that absorb at least 90 percent of UV sunlight.
This is not an all inclusive list. There are many more things you can do to be safe while on a dive. Use your common sense.

If you have had a bad diving experience because of someone who had no regard for safety rules, lets hear about it. Post it to the boards or discuss it in the chat room

How to score for scuba diving:Divemaster training is the first leadership level in the PADI system. The goals of PADI Divemaster training are to:

Enable you to organise, conduct and supervise recreational diving activities - both land and boat based.
Enable you to act as an instructional assistant to a PADI Instructor.
Develop theory knowledge sufficient to become an instructor.
Prepare candidates for instructor level training.

To qualify for Divemaster training you must:

Be certified as a PADI Advanced Open Water Diver and a Rescue Diver OR equivalents.
Have training in CPR/First Aid within the past three years.
Be at least 18 years.
Submit a diving medical conducted within the past year.

THE HISTORY OF DIVING

Humans have been diving ever since primitive man was forced to collect food from the sea. In the past, the recovery of valuable goods from shipwrecks forced the invention of experimental diving devices, leading to the diving bell, in which workers could spend periods underwater; and the diving helmet, which was invented by Englishmen Charles and John Deane of Whitstable in 1829.

The history of sport diving can be traced more directly to the invention of the first autonomous diving gear which did not require lines or air hoses to the surface.

This new concept was invented by William James, an Englishman, who in 1825 produced a workable design in which compressed air was carried in a circular iron container around the diver's waist. There is no record of James diving so the first use of an independent apparatus was by an American, Charles Condert. He built and used a horseshoe shaped waist mounted air container which provided a continuous flow of air to a flexible helmet. Condert dived with this equipment many times in New York's East River before his death, due to a broken air tube in 1832.

The next breakthrough was made by two Frenchmen, Rouquayrol and Denayrouse in 1865. They used a metal cannister charged to pressure of 40 bars and carried on the back. Their most important invention was a demand regulator which enabled the dive to breath his air at the same pressure as the surrounding water. This apparatus was marketed for sponge and wreck diving.

With the developments of high-pressure cylinders, more experiments with compressed air took place. Louis Boutan, a French pioneer underwater photographer, produced an air-breathing set with a cylinder charged to nearly 200 bars, but it was the Japanese who marketed 'Ohgushi's Peerless Respirator', patented in Britain in 1918.

Another important pioneer was Commandant Yves Le Prievr of the French Navy, who was the first to consider amateur sport diving in the sea. He produced a lightweight compressed-air apparatus with a regulator that was not fully automatic. He first used goggles and later a full face mask with his equipment. In 1935 he founded the first diving club to train with his apparatus in Paris.

The development of modern fins, mask and snorkel tubes was due to the breath holding underwater fishermen who operated in the south of France in the 1920s and 1930s. The first of these was an American, Guy Gilpatric, who inspired both Hans Hass and Jacques Cousteau. Gilpatric used a pair of old flying goggles, plugged with putty and painted over. His Russian friend, Karamarenko, produced the first rubber mask with a single window. Fins were patented by de Corliev in France in 1929. The firs snorkel tube was used by the Englishman Steve Butler. The development of the basic equipment was therefore a joint effort by American, Russians, Frenchmen, and Englishmen.

The first fully automatic aqualung was developed by the Frenchman Georges Commeinhes. His twin cylinders were used with a full face mask and air escaped from a special valve instead of around the edges of the mask. The set also had a pressure gauge. The pressure of the cylinder was 150 bars. Meanwhile, Jacques Cousteau, a French Navy officer, was also working to develop an efficient aqualung. In 1942, he combined with engineer Emile Gagnan to produce a new regulator with an inlet and exhaust tube that was fully automatic. The modern aqualung was born!

EQUIPMENT

To see clearly underwater, the diver needs a mask. There are many different kinds of masks but he most important features are that the glass is scratch and shatterproof, made of tempered glass, and that the body forms a waterproof seal against the divers' face, and preferably made of silicone rubber. The mask has to include the nose as well as the eyes, to prevent pressure damage.

The fins are essential in moving the diver through the water with his hands left free. The fins are made up of two main part, the shoe and the blade. The shoe needs to be made out of soft rubber to ensure maximum comfort. The blade should have a graduated stiffness in order to transmit the power from the legs. There are also two different kinds of fins, one which is mostly used in pools and by snorkelers, and one for open water diving.

To be able to swim on the surface with the face submerged, the diver needs a snorkel. This makes finning on the surface much easier than constantly lifting the head up in order to breath. The snorkel consists of two parts, a rubber mouthpiece and rigid tube that points upward, together forming a J. Snorkels with valves at the open end should be avoided.

As a wetsuit or drysuit will increase the diver's buoyancy, a weight belt is a necessity. The weight belt needs to have a simple quick-release buckle to enable the diver positive buoyancy in case of emergency. The weight belt should be put on top of the rest of the equipment, so it can come off easily without snagging.

The aqualung consists of three parts, the air cylinder, the regulator, and the harness. The cylinder twill have a pressure of about 200 bars and could either be made of steel or aluminium. The pressure will have to be reduced to exactly the same pressure as the surrounding water, and that is what the regulator does, except for providing the diver with air. The harness is the means by which the aqualung is carried on the diver's back.

A 'Buoyancy Jacket' uses the principle of displacing water with air to increase the diver's buoyancy, in a controlled fashion. It can either be fed from the main tank or from a small emergency cylinder.





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